Abfraction is a loss of tooth structure, usually due to continued trauma to the teeth caused by excessive force on them due to a bad occlusion. When tension zones are generated, microfractures are produced, which can cause the loss of enamel, dentin, and cementum.
Abrasion is a loss of tooth structure due to the contact of the teeth with abrasive elements, such as by using a toothbrush that is too hard or brushing too aggressive.
Attrition is a type of tooth wear caused by contact between teeth. This process occurs frequently in patients with bruxism or teeth grinding.
Erosion is the destruction of the tooth surface caused by external elements, usually chemicals and/or acids, such as those contained in carbonated beverages. An excessive consumption of them can cause the loss of enamel.
Root resorptions are defects in a tooth that can affect the enamel, dentin, cementum, and pulp, usually caused by trauma, orthodontic treatment, cysts, impacted teeth, systemic, idiopathic, or genetic diseases.
Resorptions can be external or internal.